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Jane Austen

Jane Austen

Jane Austen, who is primarily known for her six famous major novels, is an English novelist. Her novels always reflect, comment, and critique upon the British nobility at the end of the eighteenth century.

Austen's novels often show the dependence of women on marriage in the pursuit of economic security and favorable social standing.

Her novels were critical for the sensibility of the second half of the eighteenth century and are part of the transition to nineteenth-century literary realism. 

Her use of mockery, along with her realism, humor, and social commentary, earned her praise among pundits, scientists, and popular audiences.

With the publications of Sense and Sensibility on (1811), Pride and Prejudice on (1813), Mansfield Park on (1814) and Emma on (1816), she achieved success as a published author. 

She wrote two additional novels, Northanger Abbey and Persuasion, both published posthumously in 1818, and began another, eventually titled Sanditon, but she died before its completion. 

She conjointly left behind 3 volumes of juvenile writings in manuscript, a brief informal novel girl Susan, and another unfinished novel, The Watsons.

Her six full-length novels have seldom been out of print, though they were revealed anonymously and brought her moderate success and tiny fame throughout her period of time.

A significant transition in her last name occurred in 1833, once her novels were republished in Richard Bentley's commonplace Novels series, illustrated by Ferdinand Pickering, and sold as a collection.

They gradually gained wider acclaim and popular readership.

In 1869, her nephew's publication of A Memoir of author introduced a compelling version of her writing career and purportedly uneventful life to an eager audience.

Austen has galvanized an oversized range of essential essays and literary anthologies.

Her novels have galvanized several films, from 1940's Pride and Prejudice to more modern productions like Sense and Sensibility (1995), Emma (1996), Mansfield Park (1999), Pride & Prejudice (2005), and Love & Friendship (2016).

Jane Austen was born in Stevenson, Hampshire, on the 16th of December, 1775.

She was born a month later than her parents expected; her father wrote of her arrival in an exceedingly letter that her mother "certainly expected to have been brought to bed a month ago”. And that her arrival was significantly welcome as "a future companion to her sister".

In 1783, Austen and her sister Cassandra were sent to Oxford to be educated by Mrs. Ann Cowley who took them with her to Southampton when she moved there later. In the autumn, both girls were sent home when they caught typhus and Austen nearly died.

Austen was, from then, home educated until she attended boarding school in Reading with her sister from early in 1785 at the Reading Abbey Girls' School, ruled by Mrs. La Tournelle, who had a passion for theatre. The school curriculum probably included some French, spelling, needlework, dancing and music and, perhaps, drama. The sisters returned home before December 1786 because the school fees for the two girls were too high for the Austen family. After 1786, Austen "never again lived anywhere beyond the bounds of her immediate family environment".


The remainder of her education came from reading and guided by her father and brothers James and Henry. Irene Collins believes that Austen "used some of the same school books as the boys" her father tutored.

Austen apparently had unfettered access both to her father's library and that of a family friend, Warren Hastings. Together these collections amounted to a large and varied library. Her father was also tolerant of Austen's sometimes risqué experiments in writing and provided both sisters with expensive paper and other materials for their writing and drawing.

Private theatricals were an essential part of Austen's education. From her early childhood, the family and friends staged a series of plays in the rectory barn, including Richard Sheridan's The Rivals (1775) and David Garrick's Bon Ton. Austen's eldest brother James wrote the prologues and epilogues, and she probably joined in, first as a spectator and later as a participant.

Most of the plays were comedies, which suggests how Austen's satirical gifts were cultivated. At the age of 12, she tried her own hand at dramatic writing; she wrote three short plays during her teenage years.

Austen was feeling unwell by early 1816 ignoring the warning signs. By the mid of that year, her health decline was clear, and she began a slow, irregular deterioration. When her uncle died and left his entire fortune to his spouse, effectively disinheriting his relatives, she suffered a relapse, writing, "I am ashamed to say that the shock of my Uncle's Will brought on a relapse ... but a weak Body must excuse weak Nerves". However, She continued to go out in spite of her illness.

Dissatisfied with the ending of The Elliot’s, she rewrote the ultimate two chapters, which she finished on the 6th of August 1816.

In 1817 Austen began her novel The Brothers (which had titled Sanditon once printed in 1925) and completed twelve chapters before stopping, probably due to illness. Todd describes Sanditon's heroine, Diana Parker, as an "energetic invalid".

In the novel, Austen mocked hypochondriacs and she described the heroine as "bilious". Five days after abandoning the novel, she wrote of herself that she was turning "every wrong color" and living "chiefly on the sofa".

She places down her pen on the 18th of March 1817, creating a note of it. Austen began losing weight due to her condition, describing it as "bile" and "rheumatism". As her illness progressed, she faced a tough issue in walking and lacked energy; by time, she was confined to bed.

Austen died in Winchester on the 18th of  July 1817, at the age of forty-one.

Henry, through his clerical connections, organized for his sister to be buried within the north aisle of the area of Winchester Cathedral.

The epitaph composed by her brother, James praises Austen's personal qualities, expressing hope for her salvation as well as the "extraordinary endowments of her mind".